or else why had He lavished such bounty on him?”. Mithraism, for example, was spread throughout the Roman world by soldiers who often had to serve in areas far from their places of birth; while Islam spread through military conquest (as in Spain and the Balkans), or through trade (as in Indonesia). Should she eat in her office, out of sight of the team and bank employees? Why or why not? All three of these religions teach that no harm should be done to others, nor should people be treated as means toward a material end like wealth. On the other hand, geographical boundaries meant that some religious groups were limited to a particular region; the Karaite sect in medieval Judaism, for example, was centered in the Jewish community of Babylonia, and from there established branches in Egypt and Russia which for centuries remained the centers of that culture. Managers must do the work required for any business deal but deliver it in a way that is culturally sensitive, even if that means negotiating details like project deadlines and the conduct of meetings and agreeing to have different expectations of those in a different cultural context. The Workplace Environment and Working Conditions, Contributing to a Positive Work Atmosphere, Criticism of the Company and Whistleblowing, Recognizing and Respecting the Rights of All, Accommodating Different Abilities and Faiths, Animal Rights and the Implications for Business, Ethical Issues in the Provision of Health Care, Changing Work Environments and Future Trends, Alternatives to Traditional Patterns of Work, Robotics, Artificial Intelligence, and the Workplace of the Future, Business Ethics in an Evolving Environment, Making a Difference in the Business World, Profiles in Business Ethics: Contemporary Thought Leaders. It is Ramadan, and the employees on her team are Muslims who fast each day for a month. Religion and Beliefs . Unlike the notion of historical time discussed in the previous module, the concept of time in business—people’s approach to punctuality, for example—varies widely in different cultures. Most religions transition thr… So, the seemingly innocuous gesture of a handshake to cement a new business relationship might be viewed very differently depending on where it occurs and who is shaking hands. Religion and Ethics A major factor in the difference that geography and culture make in our ethical standards is the influence of religious practice. It seems like the atheist is an atheist, not for rational reasons, but because of culture and geography based on their own logic (or lack thereof)! This might include language translation, adapting content to the tastes and consumption habits of the local market, and converting measurements. Jillian Armstrong leads an external audit team reviewing the financial statements of Islamabad Investment Bank in Islamabad, Pakistan. What he failed to predict was that the West would export its culture to the rest of the world and thus grip the entire world in its death throes. Values of Protestant Christianity were often used to justify ________. In its study of leadership effectiveness and organizational behavior across cultures, the GLOBE leadership project of the Beedie School of Business at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver, Canada, found leader effectiveness is contextual and strongly connected to cultural and organizational values. Time and space are just two examples of cultural characteristics that you may take for granted but that are not universal. In some cultures, touch is important in establishing connection, whereas in others it may be frowned upon. In the premodern era, very few people moved far from where they grew up, which meant that they were not exposed to cultures (including religions) that were very different from their own. relationship of every individual to the spiritual things they have regarded as holy and worthy of their highest reverence Until 1975 Buddhism was officially recognized as the state religion of Cambodia. - Definition & Role in Society, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. There was, for centuries, a mutual hostility and demonization between Christians and Muslims that broke into outright conflict during the Crusades; this hostility made it unlikely that members of the two groups would consider adopting each others' faith, though there are areas in southern Europe where the groups lived in peace for a long time until warfare broke out after the collapse of the former Yugoslavia. How could language or religion influence the diffusion of the other? All rights reserved. Hundreds of studies have examined how religious beliefs mold an individual’s sociology and psychology. How does religion help and/or hurt society? A major factor in the difference that geography and culture make in our ethical standards is the influence of religious practice. Motions of the Earth 2. Spirituality and Religion . Osiris, perhaps the most popular god, represented the resurrection from death to life in the remarkable story of his rebirth after being murdered by his evil brother. Business is primarily about relationships—with employees, business partners, and customers and clients. . Monasteries became the repositories of civilization, learning, and often wealth. In order for a new faith, or any system of belief, to spread it would need to be carried by people who were on the move for that purpose or some other. As a general rule, “contact” cultures—where people stand closer together when interacting, touch more often, and have more frequent direct eye contact—are found in South America, the Middle East, and southern Europe, while “noncontact” cultures—where eye contact and touching are less frequent, and there is less physical proximity during interactions—are in northern Europe, the Far East, and the United States. Religion is also studied within cultural geography, which studies how cultural processes spread. Do both and you will be happy in both the worlds, and these are disconnected. Cambodia - Cambodia - Religion: Most ethnic Khmer are Theravada (Hinayana) Buddhists (i.e., belonging to the older and more traditional of the two great schools of Buddhism, the other school being Mahayana). Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. In July 2018 Mothercare PLC announced to the... What pyramid did Imhotep build in ancient... How did transcendentalism unite American... What is the difference between dark romanticism... What is the significance of transcendentalism in... What were the common themes associated with... Why did transcendentalism develop after... How did transcendentalism affect American... How did transcendentalism start in literature? Yet what role does a religious concept of stewardship play in the ethics of the twenty-first century? Research has shown that successful leaders and organizations with global responsibilities “need to understand and exceed the leadership expectations in the cultures they are interacting with.”. The country’s capital is Reykjavik. No one was more convinced of the link between religious faith and success in business than Rockefeller, who clung to his Baptist faith from his early years until his death in 1937. This can be a matter of managing expectations. For instance, when the Roman Catholic Church emerged, it borrowed many of its organizational principles from the ancient Roman military and turned senators into cardinals, for example. Another aspect of international business relationships is the question of personal space. The Taj Mahal is not the Palace of Versailles. Geography affects a business’s relationship with almost any type of stakeholder, from stockholders and employees to customers, the government, and the environment. 1. These goals need not be in conflict, but they must be integrated if the company is to reach an ethically sound agreement with the host country. Places along the coast may have an oceangoing culture. For example, the Italian subito and the German sofort both refer to something happening “at once” or “straightaway,” but with different expectations about when the action, in fact, will take place. If so, how would it accommodate the differences across time, regions, and cultures discussed in this chapter? Geography is very important to understanding culture. by L. Ron Hubbard. The place of our birth and our cultural environment heavily influence our behavior. For example, unless you are a barista at a hipster coffee bar, it may not be a good idea to wear piercings, tattoos, or colorfully dyed hair to work. The Enlightenment’s attempt to peel religion away from ethics was short-lived, with even Kant acknowledging the need to base morality on something beyond the rationalism of his time. Natural Resources. The opposite is also true—the geographical unity of the Roman Empire, which was organized around cities connected to one another by an elaborate system of roads, made it possible for Christianity to spread from the eastern Meditteranean to Europe and northern Africa. This helps them live within a set of rules unlike the animals. In the movie The Intern, Robert De Niro’s senior character wears conservative blue and gray suits to his job at an e-commerce fashion startup, whereas the younger men dress very casually. Of the forces shaping the geography of culture, language and religion are two of the most powerful, but as a divisive force religion plays a more prominent role. This leads to a systematic behavior by all the people in the society. In fact, the Protestant work ethic, religion, and a commitment to hard work all are intertwined in the business history of both these countries. Cultural Diversity = Religious Diversity? All of this speaks to the awareness and cultural sensitivity that must be exhibited by an ethical manager doing business in a region different from his or her own. An early 20th-century philosopher spoke of the impending decline of the West. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Climate and geography play major roles in … Under the Khmer Rouge, all religious practices were forbidden. She has decided to leave well enough alone as long as everyone does their work, but now she faces a dilemma. Scholars are also aware that these definitions are not static. Join now. (credit left: modification of “Taj Mahal” by Suraj rajiv/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 4.0; credit right: modification of “Cour de Marbre du Château de Versailles October 5, 2011” by Kimberly Vardeman/Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 2.0), Ricci’s approach and the relationship between Western and Ming Chinese views of ethics, episode of “American Experience” on John D. Rockefeller, Sr. from the Public Broadcasting System. Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. In other words, business has a role beyond merely reflecting the culture in which it operates. But even among Western business cultures, conceptions of time can differ. Religion, Geography and Culture • Religion in an integral part of any culture group. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Describe the impact of geography on global relationships and business ethics, Explain how religion informs ethical business practice around the world. Religion continues to be a forceful influence on ethical systems. Are the Values Central to Business Ethics Universal? One element of business culture you may not realize is based on local custom and culture is the notion of time. In making his fortune, he pursued markedly Darwinian practices revealing a conviction in survival of the fittest. How we perceive things is largely affected by our judgment skills, preconceived notions, attitude, and emotions. Business attire is another, as is humor, which is notoriously hard to translate across languages and cultures. The study also concluded that, although leaders learn to adapt to cultural expectations, they often have to exceed those expectations to be truly successful. “As his fortune grew big enough to beggar the imagination, [Rockefeller] retained his mystic faith that God had given him money for mankind’s benefit . is linked to their cultural beliefs and background. Religion is one which imparts culture to most of the societies. Cultural Geography, Chapter 6 (Religion) study guide by Kayla_Oden includes 36 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. What should she do for lunch? How Geography Affects Religion? Fish might be a major part of their diet. The most studied component of the geography of religion is the religious landscape, or the religious imprint on the material cultural landscape. Religious traditions - Hindu ritual bathing in the Ganges, for example - leave their mark on the physical appearance of an area. Log in. Christianity was thought to save them from their pagan ways just as Islam and the message of the prophet saved unbelievers in the East. In judging something as easy or difficult, our attitude and our motivation levels play a key role. Religion leaves an imprint on landscape, through culture and lifestyle. Some ways that religion affects culture are that it inspires great works of art and architecture and that it often defines socially acceptable behavior in countries strongly influenced by it. ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the four main factors of geography that have influence on society and culture. What is your opinion about workplace dress codes, and how far should employers go in setting dress and other behavior standards? Of course, Rockefeller’s concept of stewardship—an attitude toward money and capital that stresses care and responsibility rather than pure utility—can be found across cultures and religions in various forms, and there are many similarities among the Judaic, Islamic, and Christian views of money and its use toward a greater end. Certain mistakes, particularly accidental ones and those not motivated by malicious design, will likely be forgiven. Because there are differences in the characteristics, history, and interaction with the environment and society, religions also have distinctive landscapes. Such adaption often starts with language translation but may include customizing content or products to the tastes and consumption habits of the local market; converting currencies, dates, and other measurements to regional standards; and addressing community regulations and legal requirements. The founder of Confucianism, named Confucius, lived from 551 to 479 B.C.E. 3 Religion: Origins and Diffusion Cultural Geography A Geography of Religion For many people, religion, more than any other cultural trait, defines who they are and how they understand the world around them. How does culture affect food in France ? By the end of this section, you will be able to: Business ethics guides people to practice commerce professionally and honestly and in a way that permits as many as possible to flourish. The Christians separate material and spiritual lives; you are allowed to accept God in private life, while you practice democracy and capitalism in social life. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal How do you think clothing choices affect the relationships we form at work or in other business situations? She proposes several times that team members keep up their strength by drinking water or tea, but her suggestions are met with awkward silence. Religion is the most recent major component of culture to develop. Geography is one of the factors widely associated by historians with the social, political, and cultural development of a particular region. For example, just as the current debate over the redistribution of goods and services has Christian roots, so the Industrial Revolution in England and northern Europe looked to Protestant Christianity in particular for the values of frugality, hard work, industriousness, and simplicity. Although the church officially opposed slavery, the conquest of new lands was justified theologically as bringing salvation and civilization to populations considered savage and unsophisticated. business success during the Industrial Revolution. 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