Griffiths, O'Callaghan and Roach (2008) listed critical theory, constructivism, feminism and postmodernism as notable theories under the post-positivist movement. Lecturer in the Department of Philosophy Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State Nigeria Abstract Before Hume, there was empiricism as developed by John Locke and Berkeley. Like positivists, post positivists also believe in the existence of a single reality, however, they acknowledge that reality can never be fully known and efforts to understand reality are limited owing to the human beings’ sensory and intellectual limitations (Guba, 1990). Positivist Approach Positivism is closely associated with the French philosopher Auguste Comte (Pring, 2000). It is also called positivist/postpositivist research, empirical science, and postpostivism. Positivist research conducted in laboratory settings is difficult to generalize to actual classrooms and schools. The post-positivist paradigm is recognised through relevant rhetoric and takes cognisance of participants’ backgrounds and contexts. Positivism is a philosophical theory which states that "genuine" knowledge (knowledge of anything which is not true by definition) is exclusively derived from experience of natural phenomena and their properties and relations. Consequently, the researcher would need to be purged of values, since these could impair the objectivity and so undermine the validity of knowledge. Logical Positivism and the Challenge of Epistemic Claims Ade-Ali, Funmilayo A. Post positivism is considered a contemporary paradigm that developed as a result of the criticism of positivism. In the mid-20th century, positivism was challenged on this extrapolation from observation to general conclusion by several thinkers. For the most part, philosophers of science are increasingly calling into question the soundness of postmodernism in social science. Positivism as an epistemology is associated with the following set of disadvantages:Firstly, positivism relies on experience as a valid source of knowledge. positivism and a more amenable and less entrenched methodological approach developed. I see positivism and post positivism as research terms, in that they refer to whether one believes there it is possible to find one irrefutable answer to any research question. Positivism vs Constructivism Positivism and constructivism are two very different philosophical stances; there is a difference between the core ideas behind each philosophy. However, post-positivism still adhered to the idea of an external reality and dualist objectivity, which was questioned by phenomenologist philosophers in terms of the level of interaction between self and the world and solipsistic positions. Popper argued that true scientific theories were capable of being disproven, or falsified, … Historians identify two types of positivism: classical positivism, an empirical tradition first described by Henri de Saint-Simon and Auguste Comte, and logical positivism, which is most strongly associated with the Vienna Circle, which met near Vienna, Austria, in the 1920s and 1930s. The approach of positivism to the social world in social research is similar, but not identical, to how the natural sciences approach the physical world, i.e. It challenges neorealism’s material, commodified understanding of power, and its narrow, abstract understanding of power’s purpose. When communication researchers first wanted to systematically study the social world, they turned to the physical sciences for their model. Challenges to Confirmation A. 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