This time it was often colleagues, classmates or complet… People needing elective surgery are unable to get it. Apart from physical injuries, international literature suggests that psychosocial recovery after a disaster can take five to ten years. In February most of the city was without power. Thousands of tremors have been recorded since the February 22 earthquake that killed 185 people, injured thousands, destroyed more than 50% of the CBD and damaged tens of thousands of homes. That approach has excluded many individuals and community organisations. The keenly awaited Margaret Mahy children’s playground has opened. More than 4,500 vehicles were stranded in the city centre during the recovery period. noun, plural -ties. Edited by Douglas Paton, David Johnston. Christchurch Cathedral showing the effects of the February 2011 earthquake. The Christchurch earthquakes from 2011 have remained in memory as an unforgettable event. These earthquakes have caused deaths and considerable destruction in Christchurch and the surrounding area. The February earthquake was also much more … These were the seeds of what Smith … Lateral spreading and its impacts in urban areas in the 2010–2011 Christchurch earthquakes. Though the government supplied money for those who were fired, businesses that needed re-building and injured employees. Two people have seriously injured - one by a falling chimney and the other by shattered glass, and one man died of a heart attack, but this doesn't count as a fatality. Scope of Project Following the major earthquake on 22nd February 2011, Christchurch was in a State of Emergency, with urgent works required throughout the city. This applies particularly in Australia, which has experienced widespread bushfires from Western Australia to Tasmania. In some cases, it took over projects managed by local authorities. The Christchurch soil type is mainly loose to moderately saturated granular soils with poor drainage.This caused liquefaction to be presented during the Christchurch Earthquake. This car toppled into a hole near Shortland Street in the suburb of Aranui following the 22 February 2011 earthquake. Earthquake debris from the Lyttelton Harbour reclamation has been washing up on nearby beaches, leading residents to question its environmental impact. The community organisations that sprang up from the rubble have provided hope, social services and public spaces for those living through their own personal recovery alongside that of the city. The Canterbury earthquakes caused a significant change to the natural environment, including liquefaction, lateral spread near waterways, land level changes, and numerous rockfalls and landslides. Volume 14, Part 1, Pages 1-104 (December 2015) Download full issue. 55, The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, pp. But the magnitude 9, mega thrust Tohuku earthquake that struck Japan in 2011 was 80 times stronger again and the equivalent of … Cultural Effects Christchurch Earthquake 12.51pm 22 February 2011 Fig. The Canterbury earthquakes of 2010-11 required a momentous recovery undertaking by the City of Christchurch in New Zealand. Over half of the deaths occurred in the 6-storey Canterbury Television (CTV) Building, which collapsed and caught fire … Shapes of the continents can fit into each other like a jigsaw puzzle would. ... Earthquake environmental effects (EEE), especially liquefaction, were intense and widespread. The Christchurch earthquake of 2011 had widespread mental health effects on the population. The Christchurch Cathedral remains in a state of disrepair. tē ] The 22 February 2011 earthquake (Christchurch 1 . By Staff Writer Last Updated Mar 27, 2020 6:15:01 AM ET. This paper focuses on the performance of potable water system of Christchurch during the 2010-2011 earthquakes and particularly examines the impacts of liquefaction on this pipe network during In particular, legal academics highlighted the unprecedented nature of the legislation and the truncated democratic process. The Commons, a Gap Filler project providing public space and activities in the central city. As the result, there were 185 people killed, 7500 injured and 60,000 people displaced. In late 2010 and in 2011, Canterbury endured a series of major earthquakes. Rescue workers are lowered by crane onto the top of the Christchurch Cathedral in Christchurch, New Zealand, Feb. 25, 2011 after the city was hit by a 6.3 earthquake Feb 22. The plates themselves are estimated to be around 2900 km thick. The Christchurch earthquake of 2011 had widespread mental health effects on the population. SuperSealing were proven performers after successfully completing 2 work programs for the City. the land change effects of the earthquakes. The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. Christchurch Cathedral showing the effects of the February 2011 earthquake. The latest events are most likely aftershocks of the M6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch and left more than 180 people dead at 22 February, 2011 and of the M7.0 event in September last year. Other studies have found that more than 75% of respondents disagreed with the government’s recovery priorities. It is hard to disentangle the effects of the earthquakes from other On 22 February 2011, Canterbury and its largest city Christchurch experienced its second major earthquake within six months. Identifying the economic impact is difficult. Street art protests the powers of the minister for earthquake recovery. Even though the February 2011 earthquake was smaller in magnitude than the September 2010 earthquake, its impact was much greater. However, it must be asked why the earthquake recovery legislation did not adopt extensive parts of the New Zealand civil defence plan and strategy. Shelley McMurtrie Alex James Mark Taylor Zoe Dewson Mike Bourke Alastair Suren Neale Hudson Kit Rutherford The 22 February 2011 earthquake affected Christchurch’s waterways following liquefaction sand/silt, bank slumping, uplift of streambeds, and input of raw wastewater. In this seminar, Dr Prasanna looked at the geography and natural disaster risk profile of New Zealand followed by a discussion on the NZ’s emergency and service management hierarchies. Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid loading. Despite the signs of progress, the government’s approach has caused simmering discontent in the local community. The Canterbury earthquakes of 2010-11 required a momentous recovery undertaking by the City of Christchurch in New Zealand. 3 Ministry for the Environment. The most violent quake, on 22 February 2011, killed 181 people. Ancient earthquake activity. We extend the extant literature on this topic in a number of ways. 2010-2011 Christchurch earthquakes is estimated to be in the range between 25 and 30 billion NZ dollars (or 15% to 18% of New Zealand’s GDP). Earthquake) was New Zealand’s worst natural disaster - 185 people lost their … Just click the "Unsubscribe" link which you find in every newsletter you get and your email adress will be removed from the subscribers list in seconds. 2011 earthquake were reviewed including: ... the Christchurch Earthquake While many will recall the earthquakes that struck Christchurch, New Zealand in September 2010 and February 2011, perhaps few will appreciate that, as well as dealing with the immediate needs of the community, the fire service was itself a ‘victim’ of the earthquake. 16000 people migrate from Christchurch due to earthquake People unable to work as many businesses are damaged and destroyed. Thousands more were made homeless, and an area more than four times the size of London's Hyde Park was deemed uninhabitable. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a powerful natural event that severely damaged the second largest city in New Zealand. While this upset many in the community, research conducted just before the earthquakes found existing legislation may not have been sufficient to manage some aspects of recovery from such a large disaster. An Earthquake Commission process of quick damage assessment to 180,000 homes starts in Christchurch, New Zealand. Liquefaction is a natural process where earthquake shaking increases the water pressure in the ground causing some soils to behave like a fluid, resulting in temporary loss of soil strength. Most Cantabrians were away from their homes when the 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck at 12.51 p.m. on 22 February 2011. The political approach of the national government to response and recovery has raised important issues for understanding the politics of disasters. The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence: Personal, Social, Governance and Environmental Consequences . Work has begun on government-led precincts and anchor projects in the central city. Two large 1980s buildings, including the six-storey Canterbury Television Building, collapsed in the earthquake. A glossary is included. Earthquakes can cause trees to fall, cliffs to crumble and caves to collapse, which can have trickle-down effects … It shifted land, created liquefaction, created large gaps in the ground etc. The 22 February 2011 earthquake caused 185 fatalities, injured 3,129 people, and 1,293 were injured in the aftermath. Next vol/issue. Please contact us! Research following the Christchurch earthquakes has shown that increasing exposure to the damage and trauma of a natural disaster is correlated with an increase in depression, anxiety, and … The port was damaged, and many roads cracked. After each major earthquake, comprehensive field investigations and inspections were conducted to document the liquefaction-induced land … The government later extended this arrangement until 2016, citing the earthquakes as one justification. Choose Historic earthquakes to find the pages on The 2010 Canterbury (Darfield) earthquake and The 2011 Christchurch earthquake and other recent earthquakes. LIQUEFACTION IMPACTS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN THE 2010-2011 CHRISTCHURCH EARTHQUAKES ... 2010-2011 Christchurch earthquakes is currently estimated to be in the range between 25 and 30 billion NZ dollars (or 15% to 18% of New Zealand’s GDP). To get some sense of scale, the Christchurch 2011 quake at a 6.3 involved a release of energy equivalent to four Hiroshima atomic bombs. 2 General geologic profile of shallow Christchurch soils indicating thickness of recent alluvial soils and water table depth along an east-west cross section (indicated in Figure 1) - "Liquefaction impacts in residential areas in the 2010-2011 Christchurch earthquakes" It was the biggest earthquake since 1931. These issues are relevant elsewhere too as climate-related disasters become more frequent. A glossary is included. Rescue workers are lowered by crane onto the top of the Christchurch Cathedral in Christchurch, New Zealand, Feb. 25, 2011 after the city was hit by a 6.3 earthquake Feb 22. The Christchurch soil type is mainly loose to moderately saturated granular soils with poor drainage.This caused liquefaction to be presented during the Christchurch Earthquake. Electricity to 75 per cent of the city was cut in the September quake. Actions for selected articles. Environmental impacts: Economic impacts: Social impacts: Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The removal of elected officials, along with the CERA legislation, are indicative of an approach to post-disaster politics that favours central government intervention and control. Social Impact. Five years on, what insight can we glean from the fallout? The Christchurch earthquake caused extensive damage to infrastructure and buildings. Research following the Christchurch earthquakes has shown that increasing exposure to the damage and trauma of a natural disaster is correlated with an increase in depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Liquefaction caused by the 2010–11 Canterbury earthquakes created large holes in streets around Christchurch. Air and water quality were also impacted, with water-based recreational activities halted until November 2011. Previous vol/issue. Recent submissions from the public on the plan to replace CERA with another agency also demonstrate the community’s desire for more powers at the local level. Effects in Christchurch. Looking towards a future that seems destined to bring more bushfires, floods and cyclones, it is vital to understand how exceptional post-disaster political tools influence recovery. The lessons from Christchurch show the importance of social and political dynamics in shaping the experience of cities and their citizens in long-term disaster recovery. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake series had severe consequences and surprised scientists for many reasons. Initiatives such as Greening the Rubble, Gap Filler and Agropolis have demonstrated the possibilities for citizen-led recovery. The stories I have collected suggest that establishing such a powerful government department created a hierarchy which has emphasised a top-down, command-and-control approach. Christchurch is finally starting to enter a phase of sustained construction. This earthquake was the second-deadliest … This, in turn, has contributed to feelings of disenfranchisement and disillusion. Approximately 25% of all buildings in the Christchurch CBD have been “red tagged” or deemed unsafe to enter. Primary Impacts Because of the 185 deaths and the 2000 people injured, this earthquake was made the second-deadliest natural disaster recorded in New Zealand. 255-269. Photograph: David Wethey/EPA. Increased sense of community as neighbours and strangers help each other. Initial effects: The economic heart of Christchurch is shut down. The primary provision for community engagement in the act is a 20-person committee appointed by the minister. RMIT University provides funding as a strategic partner of The Conversation AU. It resulted in massive loss of life, environmental devastation and infrastructural damage. Copyright © 2010–2021, The Conversation US, Inc. The earthquake happened on a conservative plate margin between the Pacific Plate and the Australian Plate. The M w 6.0 (M L 6.4) Christchurch earthquake on 13 June 2011 was preceded 1 h 20 min earlier by a M L 5.6 earthquake; these events and related aftershocks were located primarily in southeast Christchurch along a NNW-trending alignment, although some large aftershocks (e.g., 21 June 2011 M L 5.4; Table 1) continued to occur in the gap between the … … The city faced enormous challenges. Interested in joining as an author? Under further legislation introduced after the February 2011 earthquake, the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA) gained wide-ranging control of the recovery. The Christchurch cathedral was toppled over and demolished from the earthquake on Feb 22, 2011. Earthquakes have a number of profound effects on local ecosystems, but the most important effect earthquakes have is that they change habitats abruptly. Different authors irregularly write about recent papers, field work, problems, conferences or just interesting things that they come across. The question then is: why can’t Christchurch lead its own recovery? Outside of New Zealand, the earthquake became known as the "Christchurch Earthquake", and it resulted in the deaths of 185 people and injuries of several thousand. People are dislocated, injured, or busy trying to get their personal lives together. The EM strategy, model and practice in New Zealand were also discussed. The September earthquake happened at night, when most people were at home asleep. Of particular concern are those that challenge the democratic right to local participation and representation. the land change effects of the earthquakes. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake series had severe consequences and surprised scientists for many reasons. Soil Liquefaction. Unfortunately, this was exactly the situation some academics feared the creation of the CERA would create. This was the second major earthquake to hit the city; the previous quake occurred on 4 September 2010 and registered at a 7.1 magnitude. Liquefaction can cause significant damage to land, buildings and infrastructure, through sediment being ejected to the ground surface, and subsequent ground settlement, ground cracking and … Apart from physical injuries, international literature suggests that psychosocial recovery after a disaster can take five to ten years. Martin Luff/CC-BY-SA 2.0. paleoseismicity.org is edited by Christoph Grützner and administrated by Martin Schmidt, Koblenz/Germany. Existing alongside these higher-level politics during the disaster recovery period is a thriving network of community and grassroots groups. Select all / Deselect all. My current research reveals this dissatisfaction is particularly with the actions of central government. It was the middle of a working day and many people were at school or work, having lunch or running errands. The combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami (known as the Tohoku event) devastated the area of northeast Japan, resulting in widespread infrastructure destruction, loss of life, and environmental contamination. Get Started. Note: The glossary is at the end of the main body of the report. The plates themselves are estimated to be around 2900 km thick. Thousands of tremors have … On 11 March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake off the north-eastern coast of Japan – the strongest ever recorded in the country – triggered a tsunami up to 30 metres high that washed up to 5 kilometres inland. Many remain unresolved. This article is more than 9 years old. (2012). Multiple buildings collapsed, and the city was impacted by burst water mains, flooding, liquefaction and power outages. PhD Candidate, Disaster Studies and Urban Geography, RMIT University. The Canterbury earthquakes of 2010-11 required a momentous recovery undertaking by the City of Christchurch in New Zealand. In early 2010, the government had removed the democratically elected officials of the regional council Environment Canterbury.     At least 15,899 people died, and another 2,500 went missing. About $2 billion worth of damage has been done, much of this damage will impede economic activity. All together there are 12 large plates and 8 smaller plates; these plates move around in different directions at a pace of 2 cm once a year. Perhaps the longest-lasting impact of the Tohoku event will result from the damage to the nuclear power plants along the coast and the subsequent release of … Almost immediately after the first big, but non-fatal, earthquake in September 2010, the government introduced legislation that gave a newly appointed earthquake recovery minister the power to amend almost any statute to support the recovery. You can also find Personal stories of the 2010–11 Canterbury earthquakes. To understand these perspectives and why people are dissatisfied, it is necessary to explore what the government did. Paleoseismicity.org is a page dedicated to scientists and everyone else interested in paleoseismology, archeoseismology, neotectonics, earthquake archeology, earthquake engineering and related topics. Most households had power within two to three days, but some regions took much longer. People are in shock and are shaken after massive 7.1 magnitude earthquake hit Christchurch, and the city is still being rocked by aftershocks. Write an article and join a growing community of more than 119,900 academics and researchers from 3,852 institutions. Note: The glossary is at the end of the main body of the report. ... Earthquake environmental effects (EEE), especially liquefaction, were intense and widespread. All together there are 12 large plates and 8 smaller plates; these plates move around in different directions at a pace of 2 cm once a year. It has been five years since a major earthquake hit the New Zealand city of Christchurch, but thousands of residents are still waiting for their homes to be repaired or rebuilt, writes Michael Ertl. It was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake and the focus was very shallow at 4.99 kilometres deep… Background . Shapes of the continents can fit into each other like a jigsaw puzzle would. Media report on environmental effects like liquefaction, landslides and rockfalls. These are highly regarded for their community-driven approach. And 59% believed the recovery to be a convenient excuse to push the government’s own agendas. A study in Christchurch found that more socially deprived neighbourhoods and areas with a greater proportion of low income households had significantly higher levels of traffic-related pollution than high income areas.6 These areas have greater proportions of Maori, Pacific peoples and other migrant groups. A strong feeling exists in the city that the community can undertake this task. Many residents, when interviewed, mentioned the importance of these organisations and their projects. These may have adversely affected aquatic ecosystems in the Avon/O In my research, many people said they would have preferred to see a locally led recovery supported and resourced by central government, but with a more “hands-off” approach. On February 22, 2011, residents of the then-second-largest city in New Zealand – Christchurch, located on the South Island's Canterbury Plains – were hit hard by a magnitude 6.3 earthquake. The latest events are most likely aftershocks of the M6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch and left more than 180 people dead at 22 February, 2011 and of the M7.0 event in September last year. Impacts of Christchurch Earthquake In total, the 'rehabilitation' costs $15.1 billion dollars worth of damage, Many businesses needed to fire employees due to the heavy re-building fee. Citation Cubrinovski, M., Henderson, D., Bradley, B.A. Other agencies also felt the effects of this approach. SuperSealing’s task was to help prevent road and pathway erosion that had suffered extensive … The September quake had occurred in the early hours of the morning with family generally close at hand. How Do Earthquakes Affect the Environment? Figure 1 below shows the daily concentrations of PM 10 in Christchurch each year and the number of days the guideline was breached in the Christchurch airshed. The most prominent example is the creation of a unit within the CERA to manage the city centre rebuild, removing the task from the locally elected city council. They say they felt dismissed and excluded – even deliberately left out of consultation and engagement. Several aftershocks were reported, some registering at a 5.6 magnitude. The region is facing major economic and organisational challenges in the aftermath of these events. 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